Sonographic evaluation of the commonest sites of placental localization in pregnant women in Umuahia, Abia State
Keywords:Placental localization, Umuahia, ultrasound
Background: The Placenta is an organ of pregnancy that provides nutrition, excretory functions and oxygen to the fetus.
Aim: The purpose of the study is to determine and provide information on the commonest sites of placental localization in pregnant women in their second and third trimesters in Umuahia, Abia state because there are few documented reports on the sonographic assessment of placental localization in Umuahia.
Methodology: Prospective study of pregnant women in their second and third trimesters was carried out trans- abdominally using an ultrasound scan machine with a 3.5 MHz transducer. Placental localization was classified into anterior, posterior, fundal and low-lying, Ultrasonography was used because it is non-ionizing, cheap and readily available. Exclusion criteria; pregnant women with a history of Caesarian section, uterine fibroids and multiple gestation.
Results: One hundred women between the ages of 20yrs and 42yrs with a mean age of 28.60±4.95 on their routine antenatal visit were used for the study. The women were in their second and third trimesters, and fetal gender distribution was 55 males and 45 females. Placental localization was classified into Anterior 44%, fundal 20%, posterior 30% and previa 3%.
Conclusion: Anterior placentation was the commonest, followed by posterior, then fundal with placenta previa being the least site of placental localization. There was no statistical significance between placental localization and maternal age, gestational age, fetal weight, gender, fetal presentation and heart rate. Evaluation for placental localization in the second and third trimesters is important to rule out placenta previa.
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