Prevalence of dry eye disease among visual display terminal office users in Uyo, Nigeria


  • Abraham EG Department of Ophthalmology, University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Nigeria
  • Motilewa OO Department of Community Health, University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Nigeria
  • Itina EI Department of Ophthalmology, University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Nigeria



Dry eye disease, Prevalence, Visual display terminal workers


Context: Dry eye disease (DED) results from loss of tear film homeostasis. Increase use of visual display terminals (VDT) by individuals and professionals increases the risk of DED.

Objective: This study is aimed to determine the prevalence of dry eye disease among office workers who use visual display terminals in Uyo.

Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study of VDT office workers aged 19-65 years. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to recruit participants. Self-administered Impact of Dry Eye on Everyday Life (IDEEL) questionnaire and ocular examination was done to gather data; such data was analyzed using SPSS version 22.0

Results: Prevalence of dry eye disease (DED) was 5.8% (95% CI 3.44 - 8.16). Mean Schirmer’s 1 was 21.60 ± 9.29mm, mean TBUT was 9.74 ± 2.48s, mean IDEEL score was 76.15 ± 25.47. There was a statistically significant association between DED and educational level 7.56(p-value 0.02), hours of visual display terminal use per day 10.72(p-value 0.013), and use of air conditioning 7.66(p-value 0.006). Multivariate regression analysis to identify predictors of dry eye was statistically significant for module 1(Symptom bother) of the dry eye questionnaire (p-value 0.01, odds ratio 12.71,), tear break up time in the left eye (p-value 0.00, odds ratio 38.67), and Schirmer 1 test in the right eye (p-value 0.00, odds ratio 30.83)`.

Conclusion: The prevalence of DED increases with the number of hours spent on VDT Periodic medical and psychological evaluation of VDT users to identify office workers most at risk should be carried out by employers of labour.






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