Histopathological pattern of endoscopic gastric biopsies in dyspeptic patients in a Nigerian population
Keywords:Dyspepsia, Endoscopic biopsy, histopathological pattern, gastritis, functional dyspepsia, adenocarcinoma
Background and Objective: Dyspepsia is one of the most common complaints encountered in the general outpatient and gastroenterology clinics in Nigeria. Histopathological assessment of endoscopic gastric mucosa biopsy is crucial to delineate the exact cause of dyspepsia to guide patients’ management. This study aimed to determine and document the histopathological basis of dyspepsia among dyspeptic patients at our facility.
Material sand Methods: This was a three year descriptive retrospective study and the materials consisted of all gastric endoscopic biopsies taken from clinically diagnosed dyspeptic patients sent to the Department of Histopathology of the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Nigeria.
Results: The biopsies were from 64 (53.2%) male patients and 56 (46.8%) female patients, giving a male to female ratio of 1.14:1. The age range of the patients was 28-82 years with a mean of 56 years at presentation. Helicobacter Pylori (H. Pylori) bacilli were identified in the samples of 42 (35%) patients but absent in samples of 78 (65%) patients. The histopathological pattern of the aetiological basis of dyspepsia in this study consisted of gastritis (96, 80%), functional (17, 14.2%), adenocarcinoma (4, 3.3%) and polyps (3, 2.5%). H. Pylori bacilli were seen only in patients with gastritis (42/96, 43.8%), and it affected 19 (45.2%) male patients and 23 (54.8%) female patients. Chronic active H. Pylori associated gastritis (24, 25%) was the most common form of gastritis seen during the study period.
Conclusion: The main organic cause of dyspepsia in our setting was chronic gastric followed in the distant by gastric adenocarcinoma and polyp. Dyspepsia and H. Pylori associated gastritis did not show a significant gender predilection.
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