Assessment of dry eye using Schirmer test in patients attending a tertiary hospital eye clinic in Nigeria
Keywords:Dry Eye Disease, Schirmer’s Test, Calabar
Background: Dry eye disease (DED) is a frequently encountered ocular morbidity seen among adult patients attending ophthalmic clinics in Nigeria. It can be assessed using different methods although there is differing consensus on reliable tests for accurate diagnosis.
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess DED using Schirmer 1 without anaesthesia among adult patients attending the Eye Clinic in a tertiary hospital in Calabar.
Methodology: This was a cross sectional study among adult patients who attended the Eye Clinic of University of Calabar Teaching Hospital who were recruited consecutively from January 1st to March 31st, 2019. All consenting participants had comprehensive eye examination and were assessed for DED using the Schirmer 1 Test. Test values of less than 10mm were diagnostic of aqueous tear deficiency. Initial data categorization yielded frequencies, percentages and proportions. Categorical variables were analysed using Chi-square test and continuous variables using Student’s t-test. Statistical significance was found where p-values were <0.05 at one degree of freedom.
Results: Overall, 73 participants were included in the study 29 males and 44 females with male-female ratio of 1:1.5, and the prevalence of DED was 28.8%. Most participants had normal distance visual acuity in both eyes. There was a statistically insignificant inverse linear relationship between age and Schirmer 1 test. The relationship between gender and Schirmer 1 test values and consequently for dry eye was statistically significant, p 0.04.
Conclusion: This study showed no significant association between DED and age. Female gender was associated with a higher risk of DED but a significant association between DED compared to the male gender. Its assessment in persons with other ocular complains is important. Primary and secondary prevention strategies are recommended.
Copyright (c) 2024 Ibanga AA, Udoh ME, Etim BA, Agweye CT, Nkanga ED, Echieh CI
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