Clinical validity of sonographically estimated postvoid residual volume in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia in Kano, North-West, Nigeria


  • Abdullahi MK Department of Surgery, Bayero University Kano, Kano State, 700241, Nigeria
  • Aji S Department of Surgery, Bayero University Kano, Kano State, 700241, Nigeria
  • Ibrahim M Department of Surgery, Bayero University Kano, Kano State, 700241, Nigeria
  • Busari AO Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, 210214, Nigeria
  • Mohammed IY Department of Chemical Pathology and Immunology, Bayero University Kano, Kano State, 700241, Nigeria


Ultrasound Scan, Urethral Catheterization, Post-Void Residual Volume, Benign Prostate Hyperplasia


Background: Post-void residual urine (PVR) estimation is an important examination in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia. Urethral catheterization has been the mainstay of post-void residual urine measurement however discomfort, risk of urinary tract infection and trauma were incessantly recorded in patients. Thus, this study evaluated the accuracy of conventional ultrasound scan versus urethral catheterization for the assessment of post-void residual volume in males with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study which recruited ninety-five men with benign prostatic hyperplasia at the surgical out-patient clinic of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano Nigeria. Postvoid urine volume was determined serially by ultrasound scan and after bladder emptying with urethral catheter. Data collected was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0. The reliability of postvoid ultrasound was determined using Cronbach’s reliability test while the validity was measured by calculating the test specificity, sensitivity and accuracy from a 2x2 contingency table.

Results: The age of the respondents ranged from 45 to 89 years with a mean age of 65 ± 11.4 years. Ultrasound scan was found to be 96.7% reliable in estimating residual volume with values of 141.45±89.54 ml by US and of 193.54±107.22 ml by urethral catheterization. The specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of ultrasound scan for estimating residual volume was found to be 100%, 80% and 60% respectively.

Conclusion: Post-void residual volume estimation by conventional ultrasound scan demonstrated reliable validity compared to urethral catheterization and can be used in a clinical setting as a noninvasive measure technique of determining post-void residual volume.